Static Var Compensator to Improve Profile Voltage (2022)

Table of Contents
A. System Modeling Electricity B. Generator model C. Power Transformer D. Transmission Line E. ÂÂElectrical load 1) Model Static Load 2) Model Load dynamic F. Drop Voltage G. Static Var Compensator H. Power Flow method I. Software ETAP Power Station J. Genetic Algorithms on OCP tool within ETAP K. Objective Function L. Operatinal Constraint M. Placement of Static Var Compensator N. ÂÂCapacitors Capacity A. ÂÂFlow studies 1) Start 2) Drawing single line diagrams. 3) Input data: data generator, a data channel, the data load.  Running the simulation Load Flow using Method Newton Raphson 4) To check whether the voltage on the system is at the permitted margin of 0.95 ≤ V ≤ 1.05 pu 5) If “No”Perform simulation process OCP bus to get anywhere into optimal location for placement of the capacitor which is then replaced by the value of the capacitor SVC. Once the process OCP is complete, plug SVC finished. 6) Return to Step 4 7) If “Yes” go to step 8 8) Results and Analysis of the results 9) Done. B. Flowchart Figure 4. Flowchart solving A. Modeling transmission system 70kV – 150kV APJ Pasuruan using software ETAP Power Station B. Generating Data transmission line system 70kV – 150k APJ Pasuruan C. Load data transmission systems 70kV – 150kV APJ Pasuruan D. ÂÂLine transmission data in system 70kV – 150kV APJ Pasuruan Source: PT PLN TJBTB APP Probolinggo E. Modelling single line transmission system diagram 70kV – 150kV APJ Pasuruan F. Simulation Load Flow using Software ETAP Power Station on the conditions of the base case G. ÂÂPlacement Analysis SVC on 70kV-150kV transmission system APJ Pasuruan 1) Placement SVC using the OCP on software ETAP Power Station FAQs Videos

Implementation of Static Var Compensator to Improve Profile Voltage On transmission System 70kV-150kV APJ Pasuruan

Abstract– System requirements for power is growing in line with the needs in line with population and industrial electricity consumption, so there is an alternative to maximize the utilization of the transmission line, one of them with equipment Flexible Alternating Current Transmission Systems (FACTS). Hardware FACTS device in this research one of which is a Static Var Compensator (SVC) to maintain the stability of the voltage remains constant at face value by injecting reactive power into the system can be controlled. Tool OCP contained in the software Electrical Transient Analysis Program (ETAP) is used to determine the location and capacity of SVC by applying the Genetic Algorithm (GA). To test the proposed method, the system standard IEEE 14-bus and the 70kV-150kV transmission system 12 bus APJ Pasuruan used for simulation in this study. From the analysis of 12 buses can be evidenced by the placement and capacity SVC in Bangil2 bus with a capacity of 43.2 MVAr Qc can raise the profile of the voltage to fall within the permitted margin of 0.95 p.u. to 1.05 p.u. Reviewed Bangil2 bus, bus Bulukandang, buses and bus Pandaan Sukorejo.serta can reduce the power of 10.158 MW and MVAr be 9.9966 45.048 44.660 MW and MVAr.

Index Terms Static Var Compensator, Profile Voltage, ETAP Power Station, 70kV-150kV Transmission System.

I

N RECENT YEARS, the needs of the electric power system in Indonesia continues to increase along with the demand for electricity and the increase in population and industrial electricity consumption. In this case the development and construction of new plants and transmission lines are needed to meet the needs of the growing burden. Akantetapi it is determined based on the consideration of environmental and economic factors. In addition to the prohibitive cost, the construction of new transmission lines also require a very long time[1].So there is an alternative to maximize the utilization of transmission lines, one of which is by using equipment Flexible Alternating Current Transmission Systems (FACTS)[2].

FACTS devices of several types of devices, Static Var Compensator (SVC) is widely sudah digunakan around the

world, including in Indonesia itself has been applied in the GI Jember. Based on the standard PLN, the voltage value allowed on electric power system ranging from 0.95 to 1.05 pu of nominal voltage[3]..SVC Can maintain the stability of the voltage remains constant at a value nominalnya by injecting reactive power into the system can be controlled. Installation SVC at one point or some places could increase the value of the voltage profile and reduce power losses (losses)on the power system[4].

FACTS concept device was introduced by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) in late 1980. Where the FACTS device can increase the capacity of the transmission system and control the flow of power (loadflow)is flexible[5].On the other hand FACTS devices can also reduce the cost of electrical energy generation and improve voltage stability of the transition state(transient)[6] [7].

Therefore, this paper will discuss the placement and the determination of optimal capacity SVC for voltage profile improvement 70-150 kV using Genetic Algorithms in the software ETAP Power Station

A. System Modeling Electricity

Modeling electric power system is defined as a network system consisting of components or electrical equipment such as generators, transformers, transmission line, and a load interconnected and establish a system.[8] [9]

B. Generator model

Generatorsare modeled as a PV bus. Which generator terminal voltage at a constant value. This is because the generator using AVR (AutomaticVoltageRegulator) to regulate the voltage on the bus. On the bus references (SlackBus), generator dioprasikan by rating voltage and phase angle const ant. In mathematical equations active power (MW) and reactive power (MVAr) generated by the generator can be written as follows:

Static Var Compensator to Improve Profile Voltage (1)………………………… (1)

Static Var Compensator to Improve Profile Voltage (2) ………………………. (2)

Where:

Pg and Qg=Active and reactive power is delivered terminal generator.

Vt = terminal voltage generator

δ = generator phase angle

Eq= internal voltage generator

Xd and Xq = synchronous reactance

C. Power Transformer

Power transformer of the power system can be expressed mathematically by the equation:

Static Var Compensator to Improve Profile Voltage (3) …………………………………………………………….. (3)

Static Var Compensator to Improve Profile Voltage (4) ………………………………………………… (4)

Where:

E = Voltage (pu)

F = frequency

N =Number of turns

Static Var Compensator to Improve Profile Voltage (5)= maximum fluxsi

From the equation it can be seen that the mechanical power transformer primary and secondary winding is not connected, but electrically interconnected by electromagnetic induction.

D. Transmission Line

 Transmission lines are represented in accordance with the class of transmission. Representation of the transmission line based on the distance is divided into three parts, namely:

1. Short Transmission (l<80 km / 50 miles)

2. The transmission medium (80 km / 50 mi<l <240 km / 150 miles)

3. Transmission length (l> 240 km / 150 miles)

Static Var Compensator to Improve Profile Voltage (6)

Figure 1. the equivalent circuit transmission line short

Static Var Compensator to Improve Profile Voltage (7)

Figure 2. the equivalent circuit transmission line medium and length of

Short the transmission line, has a channel length of less than 80 km (50 miles) assumed that the capacitance value can be ignored and only the taking into account the value of the resistance (R) and inductive reactance (XL).With assumed in a balanced (balanced), the transmission line can show by using the equivalent circuit of the phase with resistance value (R) and inductive reactance (XL)which are connected in series (series impedance), which can be seen in Figure 2.1. While in the middle of the transmission line, the transmission line has a length of 80 km (50 miles) and 240 km (150 miles). In the middle of the transmission line, the capacitance conductor can not be ignored so that the conductor can be modeled using the equivalent circuit of one phase in the form of nominal π which can be seen in Figure 2.2. But for a long transmission line, capacitance and impedance conductive assumed contained on all the conductors to the limit of infinite.

E. ÂÂElectrical load

In power systems, there are two kinds of modeling the load is static load and dynamic load.

1) Model Static Load

Static load model is a model that represents active and reactive power as a function of the bus voltage and frequency. Static load in response to changes in voltage and frequency is reached quickly, so it tends to steady-state condition. Static load models are typically used for components such as resistive loads and lighting loads, and is also sometimes used to approach the dynamic components.

2) Model Load dynamic

Dynamic load model is a model that represents the active power and reactive follow the dynamics of the system variables, so that the condition can change at any time.

F. Drop Voltage

The Drop Voltage is the amount of voltage that is missing on a conductor. The voltage drop across the power line is generally proportional to the length of the channel and the load, and inversely proportional to the cross sectional area of the conductor. The magnitude of the voltage drop expressed either in percent or in the amount of Volt.

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G. Static Var Compensator

Static Var Compensator or called SVC is one of the FACTS equipment Device consisting of a reactor component with a large set of inductive reactive power compensation and capacitor as a source of reactive power, power electronics equipment as well equipped as a switching device. Broadly speaking, the function of which is to preserve SVC (controller) voltage stability remain constant at its face value.

SVC is a generator / load connected shunt static VAR where output is set for the exchange of inductive or capacitive currents in order to maintain or control the power system can be varied. TCR (Thyristor Controlled Reactor) at the fundamental frequency can be treated as a variable inductance

Static Var Compensator to Improve Profile Voltage (8) ………………………………………………. (5)

Where, XV is a variable reactance SVC while XL is the reactance caused by the fundamental frequency without control thyristor and α is the angle of ignition so that the total equivalent impedance of the controller can be expressed in:

Static Var Compensator to Improve Profile Voltage (9) ……………………………………….. (6)

Value rx = XC / XL is given by the controller limit ignition angle limit of value fixed in accordance with the design. control law The steady state contained in the SVC typical VI characteristic figure 2.3 is

Static Var Compensator to Improve Profile Voltage (10) …………………………………………………….. (7)

where V and I are rms voltage and current magnitude and Vref is the reference voltage. Typical values for slope XSL is 2 to 5%, tehadap SVC base; The value is necessary to avoid passing the limit of bus voltage variation is small. A typical value controlled voltage range Static Var Compensator to Improve Profile Voltage (11) of Vref.[11] [12]

Static Var Compensator to Improve Profile Voltage (12)

Figure 3. V I characteristics instate SVC steady

H. Power Flow method

By using the Newton Raphson method to analyze the power flow by forming a non-linear algebraic equations of power flow calculation can be determined by performing a comparison between the voltage change in voltage angle Static Var Compensator to Improve Profile Voltage (13) and the magnitude of the voltage Static Var Compensator to Improve Profile Voltage (14) with active power changes Static Var Compensator to Improve Profile Voltage (15) and reactive power Static Var Compensator to Improve Profile Voltage (16)(k)).[11]In the mathematical equations of power flow can be written as follows:

Static Var Compensator to Improve Profile Voltage (17)…………………………… (8)

Where: Static Var Compensator to Improve Profile Voltage (18) is the value of active power (MW)

Static Var Compensator to Improve Profile Voltage (19) is the value of reactive power (MVAr)

I. Software ETAP Power Station

ETAP (Electric Transient and Analysis Program)is a software full-graphics that can be used to design and test the condition of the existing electric power system. ETAP can be used to simulate the electrical power system offline in the form of a simulation module, monitoring the operation data in realtime, simulation, real time system optimization, energy management systems andsimulation of intelligent loads hedding. ETAP is designed to handle a variety of conditions and electric power system topologies both in the consumer side of the industry as well as to analyze the performance of the system at the utility. software Thisis equipped with facilities to support the simulation of such networks AC and DC (AC and DC networks),the design of cable networks, grid earth (groundgrid), GIS, panel design, arc-flash, coordination of protective devices (protective devices coordination /selectivity),and AC / DC control system diagram.

ETAP Power Station also provides a library that will simplify the design of an electrical system. library This can be edited or can be added to the information equipment. This software works by plant (project).Each plant must provide modeling support equipment associated with the analysis that will be performed. For instance generator, load data, channel data, etc. A plant consists of a sub-set of the electrical system that require special electrical components and interconnected. In Power Station, each plant must provide a data base for that purpose.

ETAP Power Station can be used to describe a single line diagram graphically and conduct some analysis / study of the Load Flow Short Circuit, the motor starting, harmonics, transient stability, protective device coordination, and Optimal Capacitor Placement.[13]

A few things to note in working with ETAP Power Station are:

  1. One Line Diagram, shows the relationship between the components / equipment so as to form an electrical system.
  2.  Library, information about all of the equipment that will be used in the electrical system. Data electrical and mechanical equipment details / full can simplify and improve the results of simulation / analysis.
  3. The standard is used, usually refers to the IEC or ANSI standards, the frequency of the system and method – the method used.
  4. Case Study, containing parameters – parameters related to the method of study to be performed and format of analytical results.
  5. Completeness of data from each element / component / electrical equipment on the system that will be very helpful analyzed the results of the simulation / analysis can approach the actual operational state.[13]

J. Genetic Algorithms on OCP tool within ETAP

Optimal Capacitor Placement (OCP) is one of the tools in the software ETAP Power Station which uses genetic algorithm for optimal capacitor placement. Genetic Algorithm is an optimization technique that is based on the theory of natural selection. An algorithm starts with the generation solutions with the diversity to represent the characteristics of the overall search space. By mutation and crossover characteristics that both have to be taken to the next generation. The optimal solution can be achieved through repeated generations. The most common method is based on a rule of thumb followed by running multiple power flow studies for fine tuning size and location. multiple power flow for fine tuning size and location.

K. Objective Function

The objective of the placement problems SVC is to improve the voltage profile and reduce the total power losses in power systems installed. The objective function is obtained from two terms. The first is the placement of SVC with the approach of the capacitor and the second is the total power loss. The objective function associated with the placement of the capacitor consists of a total power loss and the capacity of the capacitor. In general, the optimal capacitor placement and capacity can be written in the following equation [14]:

Static Var Compensator to Improve Profile Voltage (20) ……………….. ……. (9)

Subject to:

Static Var Compensator to Improve Profile Voltage (21) ……………………………….. (10)

Static Var Compensator to Improve Profile Voltage (22) …………………………………….. (11)

Where:

P loss= Total power loss

J = Total Bus

Static Var Compensator to Improve Profile Voltage (23)= Placement capacity capacitors on the bus j

Vj= voltage rms at bus j

V min= minimum voltage is allowed (pu)

V max= maximum voltage that allowed (pu)

Static Var Compensator to Improve Profile Voltage (24)= maximum capacitor capacity permissible

Static Var Compensator to Improve Profile Voltage (25)= minimum capacity capacitor bank

L. Operatinal Constraint

Along the feeder are required to remain within upper and lower limits after the addition of capasitors on the feeder. Voltage constrains can be taken into account by voltage.

M. Placement of Static Var Compensator

placement static var compensator used approach OCP. OCP is the optimal capacitor placement that exist in software ETAP power station which will be described in research methodology. Optimal placement of capacitors in the power system has many variables including the capacitor capacity, optimal placement, voltage and harmonics. Where in determining placement and optimum capacity, types of capacitors can be adjusted based on conditions on the ground. Namum considering these variables, making optimal placement becomes very complicated. So as to simplify the analysis, the type of capacitor can be assumed as follows:

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1. The system is in equilibrium (balanced)

2. All types are considered constant load

N. ÂÂCapacitors Capacity

Capacitors In determining capacity, used capacity started based standard smallest capacity of capacitors and multiples thereof. So based on these standards, the capacity of the capacitor can be used as a discrete variable. and will be used as the capacity of the SVC.

In the analysis of the placement and the determination of the optimum capacity of capacitors to improve voltage profile and reduction in power losses, papers It uses the standard IEEE as a reference point in the implementation process and workmanship. Testing and research with survey data obtained from PT. PLN (Persero) APP TJBTB Probolinggo. With the data obtained, it can be simulated transmission system APJ Pasuruan 70 kV and 150 kV using software ETAP Power Station. Simulations can be done in the form of power flow or Load Flow, which is to know the profile of the voltage, active power, reactive power and losses that occur in the system 70 kV and 150 kV After conducting a study of power flow it is known conditions of the bus who suffered voltage drop (under voltage).If there are conditions that decrease the bus voltage below the allowable margin (0.95 <Vpu <1.05), it can be improved voltage profile by determining the optimal placement and capacity static var compensator (SVC) use the tool approaches OCP.[13]

A. ÂÂFlow studies

Flowused in the preparation of this study are as follows:

1) Start

2) Drawing single line diagrams.

3) Input data: data generator, a data channel, the data load.

 Running the simulation Load Flow using Method Newton Raphson

4) To check whether the voltage on the system is at the permitted margin of 0.95 ≤ V ≤ 1.05 pu

5) If “No”Perform simulation process OCP bus to get anywhere into optimal location for placement of the capacitor which is then replaced by the value of the capacitor SVC. Once the process OCP is complete, plug SVC finished.

6) Return to Step 4

7) If “Yes” go to step 8

8) Results and Analysis of the results

9) Done.

B. Flowchart

Static Var Compensator to Improve Profile Voltage (26)

Figure 4. Flowchart solving

A. Modeling transmission system 70kV – 150kV APJ Pasuruan using software ETAP Power Station

Before running simulation modeling is required in advance PLN APJ Pasuruan sisitem transmission using software ETAP Power Station from pictures in the can when the survey. Modeling Single line diagramis done using software ETAP Power Station and to enter all of the data supports five image simulasi. Transmission system70kV -150kV APJ Pasuruan is still in the shade APP Probolinggo with 12 bus and were able to generate 632.4 MW power P and Q 391,92 MVar of PLTGU. Total peak load on the transmission system APJ Pasuruan P 327.75 129.8 MW Q MVar.

Static Var Compensator to Improve Profile Voltage (27)

Source: PT PLN TJBTB APP Probolinggo

Figure 5. Single line diagram APP system probolinggo

B. Generating Data transmission line system 70kV – 150k APJ Pasuruan

Table 1. Data Capable of Generating Power transmission system 70kV – 150kV APJ Pasuruan

No.

GENERATOR

DATA SHEET APP PROBOLINGGO

P (MW)

Q (MVAr)

1

PLTGU Grati 1

84.15

52 151

2

PLTGU Grati 1.1

127.5

79 017

3

PLTGU Grati 1.2

84.15

52 151

4

PLTGU Grati 1.3

84.15

(Video) Power System Static Var Compensator SVC for Power Quality

52 151

5

PLTGU Grati 2.1

84.15

52 151

6

PLTGU Grati 2.2

84.15

52 151

7

PLTGU Grati 2.3

84.15

52 151

Source: PT PLN TJBTB APP Probolinggo

C. Load data transmission systems 70kV – 150kV APJ Pasuruan

Table 2. Data transmission system peak load of 70kV – 150kVAPJ Pasuruan

Line Transmission

Transformer

P (MW)

Q (MVAr)

GRATI

Trafo1- 60 MVA

12.6

3:22

BUMICOKRO

Trafo1- 50 MVA

39.15

11.82

Trafo2-60MVA

46.8

16:12

GONDANGWETAN

Trafo1-60MVA

31.42

8:56

Trafo2-30MVA

22:24

5.82

Trafo3-60MVA

23:06

8:18

BANGIL1

Trafo1-60MVA

27.26

6.94

Trafo1-20MVA

16.74

6:04

REJOSO

Trafo1-20MVA

2.86

3:25

Trafo2-30MVA

2:45

6

Trafo3-35 MVA

8:21

2.1

PIER

Trafo1-50MVA

21.89

11:52

PANDAAN

Trafo1-30MVA

17:28

4.94

Trafo2-20MVA

10.66

2.65

Trafo3-30MVA

25.8

9.6

SUKOREJO

Trafo1-30MVA

17:42

6:06

BULUKANDANG

Trafo1-60MVA

24.4

6.93

Trafo2-20MVA

8.66

2:44

PURWOSARI

Trafo1 -60MVA

13.85

7.61

Source: PT PLN TJBTB APP Probolinggo (peak load data)

D. ÂÂLine transmission data in system 70kV – 150kV APJ Pasuruan

Table 3. Line transmissiondata in system 70kV – 150kV Pasuruan

From

To

Circuit

Distance (KM)

Type Conductor

GRATI

GONDANGWETAN

1

21.069

ACSR ZEBRA

GRATI

GONDANGWETAN

2

21.069

ACSR ZEBRA

GONDANG-WETAN

BANGIL

1

16.805

ACSR DOVE

GONDANG-WETAN

(Video) What is Static VAR Compensator (SVC)

BANGIL

2

16.805

ACSR DOVE

BANGIL

PANDAAN

1

8,700

ACSR Ostrich

BANGIL

PANDAAN

2

8,700

ACSR Ostrich

BUMICO-KRO

BANGIL

1

6200

ACSR ZEBRA

BANGIL

SUKOREJO

1

16,000

ACSR PIGEON

BANGIL

MOLDY-DANG

1

24 770

ACSR DOVE

BANGIL

PIER

1

6200

ACSR ZEBRA

BANGIL

PIER

2

6200

ACSR ZEBRA

GONDANG-WETAN

PIER

1

10 866

ACSR ZEBRA

GONDANG-WETAN

PIER

2

10 866

ACSR ZEBRA

PIER

PURWOSA-RI

1

22 422

ACSR ZEBRA

PIER

PURWOSA-RI

2

22 422

ACSR ZEBRA

GONDANG-WETAN

REJOSO

1

10 487

ACSR DOVE

GONDANG-WETAN

REJOSO

2

10 487

ACSR DOVE

Source: PT PLN TJBTB APP Probolinggo

E. Modelling single line transmission system diagram 70kV – 150kV APJ Pasuruan

Creating modeling a single line diagram70KV transmission systems – 150kV APJ Pasuruan on software ETAP Power Station is the first step in the analysis. Where in this modeling will be included all the data – technical data which includes capacity, generation, channel, transformer, step-up the transformer and the load.

Static Var Compensator to Improve Profile Voltage (28)

Figure 6 Modelling Single Line Diagram of the transmission system 70kV – 150kV APJ Pasuruan

F. Simulation Load Flow using Software ETAP Power Station on the conditions of the base case

Simulation load flow is intended to determine the initial condition of the system, determine the value of the voltage rating on every bus, knowing that the power in each channel and obtain the value of active and reactive power on the bus. Insimulation load flow thisusing methods Newthon Rhapson.

Static Var Compensator to Improve Profile Voltage (29)

Figure 7. After the run with load flow in base case conditions.

Table 3. Profile voltage conditions of the base case

No.

BUS ID

V(pu)

1.

BANGIL 1

0.9568

2.

BANGIL 2

0.9299

3.

BULUKANDANG

0.9497

4.

BUMICOKRO

0.9517

5.

GRATI GITET

0.1000

6.

GONDANGWETAN

0.9713

7.

GRATI

0.9992

8.

PANDAAN

0.9174

9.

PIER

0.9610

10.

PURWOSARI

0.9586

(Video) Voltage Profile Improvement Using Static Var Compensators (SVC) | Final Year Projects 2016 - 2017

11.

REJOSO SUMMIT

0.9700

12.

SUKOREJO

0.9216

Static Var Compensator to Improve Profile Voltage (30)

Figure 8. Graph voltage profile condition of base case

Based on the load flow inconditions basecase aboveand have been known to occur outside the voltage breach margin the permitted of 0.95 pu to 1 05 pu in Bangil2 bus, bus Bulu kandang, Pandaan bus, and the bus Sukorejo, it can be improved voltage profile by using analysis of Optimal Capacitor placement (OCP) for placement and capacity SVC.

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G. ÂÂPlacement Analysis SVC on 70kV-150kV transmission system APJ Pasuruan

In determining the placement and capacity SVC, this study uses Optimal Capacitor Placement (OCP) contained in software ETAP Power Station

1) Placement SVC using the OCP on software ETAP Power Station

Running OCP to find the location and capacity of the optimal capacitor will be applied in SVC using the techniques of Genetic Algorithm. By mutation and crossover characteristics that both have to be taken to the next generation. The optimal solution can be achieved through repeated generations. Before using OCP bus made the selection of candidates for the location of the installation of the capacitor dnature determine the location of SVC.

a) Determination Bus Candidates buses that will be placed capacitors

Click optimal capacitor placement

Static Var Compensator to Improve Profile Voltage (31)

Figure 9 Tool in software ETAP Power Station

Determining bus candidate will have to be placed SVC uses pendektan of capacitors that bus who suffered critical contained in Table 3 in red. Buses were experiencing critical is Bangil2 bus, bus Pandaan, Sukorejo bus, bus Bulu kandang the voltage is under 0.95 puIn the simulation program OCP may be prescribed alone but should refer to the index of power losses bus candidate selection depends on the objectives to be achieved determination bus candidate is only done if there is voltage drop on the bus.

By the time the program will choose candidates to run OCP Bus provided in Table 3 are marked in red and will select the most optimal locations that will be placed along with the capacitor optimal capacitor capacity.

b) Determining the optimal location and capacity of the capacitor.

OCP will automatically calculate the minimum required capacitor capacity and optimal location to improve the voltage profile of the system. Which is then displayed on a single line diagram.

Static Var Compensator to Improve Profile Voltage (32)

Figure 10. The location and capacity of the capacitor for the placement of SVC

After running the tool OCP on software ETAP PowerStation,the program displays the location and capacity of the optimal capacitor will be installed on buses that have been determined.

c)  The location and capacity of the capacitor

By using the tools OCPon software ETAPcapacitor placement can be optimized with the right to correct the voltage rating by bus candidate. The results of the OCP is:

Table 4 Result determination of SVC with OCP

Results OCP

ID Bus

Banks (kVar)

kV

Number Of Banks

Total Banks

(Kvar)

BANGIL2

10 800

70

4

43 200

After adding the candidate buses that have a voltage drop outside the limits of ± 5% (standard tolerance AC voltage PLN) found the number and location of capacitors that are in the bus as it exists in table 4.after obtaining the location and capacity of the OCP, her location is located on theBangil2 bus banks (kVar) 10800 multiplied by four (the number of banks)then the result 43200 kVar or in a larger unit Qc its 43.2 MVAr SVC is entered as the capacity to improve the voltage profile. After that run back with a loadflow to ensure the voltage profile are at the margin set.

Static Var Compensator to Improve Profile Voltage (33)

Figure 11 is run back to the loadflow after placement on the Bus Bangil2 SVC.

From the results of simulation loadflowstelah SVC installation can be in the know that the profile of the voltage on the bus who suffered undervoltage returns to normal.

Table 5. Profile voltage before and after the installation of SVC

ID bus

Basecase (pu)

SVC (pu)

BANGIL1

0.9612

0.9568

BANGIL 2

0.9299

0.9644

BULUKANDANG

0.9540

0.9497

BUMICOKRO

0.9561

0.9517

GITET GRATI

1.000

1.0000

GONDANGWETAN

0.9745

0.9713

GRATI

0.9992

0.9992

PANDAAN

0.9514

0.9174

PIER

0.9610

0.9650

PURWOSARI

0.9625

0.9586

REJOSO

0.97

0.9732

SUKOREJO

0.9558

0.9216

Static Var Compensator to Improve Profile Voltage (34)

Figure 12. Comparison of the voltage profile (pu) before and after the installation of

Table 6. Loss of active power loss (Ploss) on the channel before and after the installation of SVC

channel

Basecase (MW)

SVC (MW)

bmckro-bngil1

0181

0183

bmckro-bngil2

0181

0183

bngil1-blkdng

0188

0190

bngil1-pier1

0158

0153

bngil1-pier2

0158

0153

bngil2-pdaan1

0230

0261

bngil2-pdaan2

0230

0261

bngil2-skj1

0052

0057

(Video) STATIC VAR COMPENSATOR (SVC)

bngil2-skj2

0052

0057

gdwtan-bngil11

0682

0655

gdwtan-bngil12

0682

0655

gdwtan-pier1

0528

0507

gdwtan-pier2

0528

0507

gdwtan-rjso1

0008

0008

gdwtan-rjso2

0008

0008

grti-gdwtan1

2,155

2,089

grti-gdwtan2

2,155

2,089

prwsri1

0.013

0.013

pier-pier-prwsri2

0.013

0.013

Static Var Compensator to Improve Profile Voltage (35)

Figure 13. Comparison of active power losses (Ploss) before and after installation of SVC

Table 7. loss reactive power(Qloss) on the channel before and after the installation of SVC

channel

Basecase (MW)

SVC (MW)

bmckro-bngil1

0117

0118

bmckro-bngil2

0117

0118

bngil1-blkdng

0166

0167

bngil1-pier1

0168

0161

bngil1-pier2

0168

0161

bngil2-pdaan1

0294

0316

bngil2-pdaan2

0294

0316

bngil2-skj1

0.056

0.060

bngil2-skj2

0.056

0.060

gdwtan-bngil11

0723

0693

gdwtan-bngil12

0723

0693

gdwtan-pier1

0560

0537

gdwtan-pier2

0560

0537

gdwtan-rjso1

0008

0008

gdwtan-rjso2

0008

0008

grti-gdwtan1

7223

6995

grti-gdwtan2

7223

6995

prwsri1

0.014

0.014

pier-pier-prwsri2

0.014

0.014

Static Var Compensator to Improve Profile Voltage (36)

Figure 14. Loss loss reactive power (Qloss) on the channel before and after the installation of SVC

Table 8. Comparison of Ploss and Qlossconditions basecase and after the installation of SVC

Total Ploss(MW) and Qloss (MVAr)

MW

MVAr

basecase

10.158

45.048

With SVC

9.966

44.660

Installation SVC Bangil2 bus with a capacity of 43.2 MV Ar Qc, is able to reduce losses of active power losses overall 10.158 MW to 9.966 MW and loss reactive power losses total of 45.048 MV Ar be 44.660 MV Ar because of SVC reactive power compensation so that voltage profile awake and keep working on the authorized limit.

(Video) Static Var Compensator Operation | Power Dispatcher Training Course | Power System Operation

  1.  After the run using the tool Optimal Capacitor Placement (OCP) to determine the location and capacity of SVC, bus chosen to put SVC is on Bangil2 bus with a capacity of 43.2 MVAr Qc.
  2.  Once installed SVC at bus that has been determined by the OCP bus voltage profile on Bangil2 of 0.9299 pu pu be 0.9644, from 0.9497 Bulukandang bus into 0.9540 pu pu, Bus Pandaan of 0.9174 pu pu be 0.9514, and the bus Sukorejo of 0.9216 pu pu be 0.9558, which previously suffered critical back on limits / margins allowed (0.95 pu <1.05 pu)
  3.  While the loss of power loss can be reduced while the loss of active power loss(Ploss) which can be reduced from 10.158 MW to 9.966 MW and reactive power losses(Q</e

FAQs

What does a static var compensator do? ›

A static VAR compensator (SVC) is a set of electrical devices for providing fast-acting reactive power on high-voltage electricity transmission networks. SVCs are part of the Flexible AC transmission system device family, regulating voltage, power factor, harmonics and stabilizing the system.

Which of the following device is a static var compensator? ›

A static VAR compensator is a parallel combination of controlled reactor and fixed shunt capacitor shown in the figure below. The thyristor switch assembly in the SVC controls the reactor. The firing angle of the thyristor controls the voltage across the inductor and thus the current flowing through the inductor.

Which compensator is used for compensation of both voltage and current harmonics? ›

The synchronous compensator is an equipment specially designed to continuously control the voltage level in a network area, both during the normal operation (by contributing to improve the static stability and thus to increase the active power transport capacity), as well as in transient operation (by contributing to ...

What is the best location for SVC? ›

For a given SVC size, the location that provides the highest value of Vcr can be considered as the best location of SVC in terms of the improvement of FSS limit. Thus, the increase in critical energy caused by a SVC at a particular bus can be considered as location index of the bus.

What is SSSC in power system? ›

The static synchronous series compensator (SSSC) is a power quality FACTS device that employs a VSC connected in series to a transmission line through a transformer or multilevel inverters. The SSSC works like the STATCOM, except that it is serially connected instead of a shunt.

What is the need of controlling voltage? ›

Voltage control in an electrical power system is important for proper operation for electrical power equipment to prevent damage such as overheating of generators and motors, to reduce transmission losses and to maintain the ability of the system to withstand and prevent voltage collapse.

What is SVC Mcq? ›

Explanation: The full form of SVC is Static Var Compensator. It is a FACTS controller used for reactive power compensation.

How does a static variable work? ›

Static Variables: When a variable is declared as static, then a single copy of the variable is created and shared among all objects at a class level. Static variables are, essentially, global variables. All instances of the class share the same static variable.

What are the characteristics of SVC? ›

The SVC regulates voltage at its terminals by controlling the amount of reactive power injected into or absorbed from the power system. When system voltage is low, the SVC generates reactive power (SVC capacitive). When system voltage is high, it absorbs reactive power (SVC inductive).

What are different types of compensators in power system? ›

These are:
  • Saturated reactor type compensators,
  • Thyristor controlled reactor compensator,
  • Thyristor switched capacitor compensator and.
  • STATCOM (Static Compensator).
Feb 17, 2020

What is the use of compensator? ›

A compensator is a component in the control system and it is used to regulate another system. In most of the time, it is done by conditioning the input or the output to that system. There are three types of compensators: lag, lead and lag-lead compensators.

Which method is used for reactive or voltage compensation? ›

Synchronous condensers—can be used to generate reactive power, when they are operated as a motor. Shunt capacitance —Capacitor banks can be connected in parallel to the transmission lines. Series capacitance —Capacitors connected in series, especially for long lines can be used to raise the voltage.

Which type of SVC is mostly preferred? ›

Most common topologies for SVCs are: TCR/FC or TCR/TSC/FC. The main advantage for using a topology with TSC branch(es) is to reduce the losses (by reducing the filter size). Hitachi Energy's SVC control system can be utilized for controlling new or existing external shunt banks.

What are the advantages of SVC over synchronous condenser? ›

However, after the initial delay, the SVC injects more reactive power due to faster voltage control compared to the synchronous condensers that have significantly larger time constants due to their field windings.

Where we can locate SVC in a transmission system? ›

A SVC is located at the midpoint of the line and two distance relays at the ends of the line.

Which is better TCSC or SSSC? ›

For the sake of comparison, the SSSC is a voltage source converter based on the gate turn off (GTO) switches whereas the TCSC and TCPS are based on thyristor controlled switches. Hence, the SSSC is an expensive solution and its cost and complexity are much higher than the TCSC [18], [19].

What are the advantages of SSSC? ›

Compared to other FACTS controllers, SSSCs are superior due to the following advantages: They eliminate bulky passive components such as capacitors and inductors. They can supply or absorb reactive power. The ability to offer inductive and capacitive operating modes symmetrically is also a benefit.

How does Static Synchronous Series Compensator SSSC affect the power flow through a transmission line? ›

It can be noted that the static synchronous series compensator does not only increase the transferable power but it can also decrease it, by simply reversing the polarity of the injected voltage. This reversed polarity voltage is fed directly to the line voltage drop as if the line impedance was increased.

How can voltage be controlled? ›

The voltage control in transmission and distribution systems is usually obtained by using tap changing transformers. In this method, the voltage in the line is adjusted by changing the secondary EMF of the transformer by varying the number of secondary turns.

How do you regulate voltage in a circuit? ›

One of the simplest ways to regulate voltage is with a Zener diode. While linear regulators are usually basic in design, a Zener diode provides adequate voltage regulation in a single component.

How does the series compensation affect the voltage stability? ›

At times, a series capacitor can even be considered as a voltage regulator that provides for a voltage boost that is proportional to the magnitude and power factor of the through current. Therefore, a series capacitor provides for a voltage rise that increases automatically and instantaneously as the load grows.

Which are shunt compensation devices? ›

The static synchronous series compensator (SSSC) and thyristor-controlled series capacitor (TCSC) are some of the FACTS control devices which provide series compensation to reactance of the lines to which they are connected, while the static synchronous compensator (STATCOM) and static VAR compensator (SVC) (where VAR ...

What is fact device? ›

FACTS devices are static power-electronic devices installed in AC transmission networks to increase power transfer capability, stability, and controllability of the networks through series and/or shunt compensation [19]. These devices are also employed for congestion management and loss optimization.

What is voltage stability Mcq? ›

A. To maintain steady voltages at all the buses after the occurrence of fault.

What is static variable with example? ›

The static variable can be used to refer to the common property of all objects (which is not unique for each object), for example, the company name of employees, college name of students, etc. The static variable gets memory only once in the class area at the time of class loading.

What is meant by static variable? ›

In computer programming, a static variable is a variable that has been allocated "statically", meaning that its lifetime (or "extent") is the entire run of the program.

Where static variables are stored? ›

The static variables are stored in the data segment of the memory. The data segment is a part of the virtual address space of a program. All the static variables that do not have an explicit initialization or are initialized to zero are stored in the uninitialized data segment( also known as the BSS segment).

What is static var generator? ›

Static VAR Generators are high performance, compact, flexible, modular and cost-effective Active Power Factor Correction (APFC) systems that provide an instantaneous and effective response to power quality problems in low or high voltage electric power systems.

What is voltage stability? ›

Voltage stability is defined as ability of power system to sustain fixed tolerable voltage at every single bus of the network under standard operating conditions as well as after being subjected to a disruption (Kundur, 1994). From: Smart Power Distribution Systems, 2019.

What are objectives of shunt compensation? ›

OBJECTIVES OF SHUNT COMPENSATION:

➢ Thus, shunt connected, fixed or mechanically switched reactors are applied to minimize line overvoltage under light load conditions, and shunt connected, fixed or mechanically switched capacitors are applied to maintain voltage levels under heavy load conditions.

What is static capacitor? ›

Static Capacitor

These static capacitors provides leading current which neutralize (totally or approximately) the lagging inductive component of load current (i.e. leading component neutralize or eliminate the lagging component of load current) thus power factor of the load circuit is improved.

What are different types of compensators? ›

There are three types of compensators — lag, lead and lag-lead compensators.

What is the meaning of compensator? ›

Noun. compensator (plural compensators) (literally) A party or thing which compensates, pays or otherwise provides a compensation. Any device used to compensate for something, notably to achieve a better balance.

What is compensator circuit? ›

Definition: A lead compensator is an electrical circuit that when provided with a sinusoidal input generates a sinusoidal signal as output with a phase lead in comparison to that of the applied sinusoidal signal. It is also known as lead network.

Which of the following method is best suited for improving the voltage at receiving end? ›

Shunt Reactor:

So that receiving end voltage becomes greater than sending end voltage. In this case, shunt reactors are needed to bring down receiving end voltage at light loads. The leading power factor can be changed to a lagging power factor by using a shunt reactor.

How do you compensate reactive power? ›

An ideal shunt compensator provides the reactive power to the system.  Shunt-connected reactors are used to reduce the line over-voltages by consuming the reactive power, while shunt-connected capacitors are used to maintain the voltage levels by compensating the reactive power to transmission line.

What does low voltage compensation mean? ›

The low-voltage compensation unit is used to increase the reactive power capacity of the transformer test system type WV. Since the power capacity of the CFI is limited (Data Sheet 8.73), the capacitive groups of the compensation unit can be applied for load-loss and temperature-rise tests of power transformers.

What are the types of SVC? ›

There are two basic types of SVCs, each having a different combination of the components described in Exercise 1 of this manual: the SVC of the TCR-FC type and the SVC of the TCR-TSC type.

How power factor is improved? ›

You can improve power factor by adding power factor correction capacitors to your plant distribution system. When apparent power (kVA) is greater than working power (kW), the utility must supply the excess reactive current plus the working current . Power capacitors act as reactive current generators .

How does synchronous condenser improve power factor? ›

Like capacitor bank, we can use an overexcited synchronous motor to improve the poor power factor of a power system. The main advantage of using synchronous motor is that the improvement of power factor is smooth. When a synchronous motor runs with over-excitation, it draws leading current from the source.

How does a synchronous motor improve power factor? ›

A Synchronous Motor can be made to operate at unity and leading power factor by just increasing its excitation voltage i.e. by increasing the field current. This advantage of Synchronous Motor is used to improve the power factor.

How does a static var compensator work? ›

The Static Var Compensator is connected parallel with the load to be compensated. The system provides reactive power in proportion to the system supply voltage. Thyristor-controlled reactors (TCR) generate an SVCs inductive power whilst passive filter capacitor banks generate its capacitive power.

What are the advantages of static var compensator? ›

The main advantage of SVCs over simple mechanically switched compensation schemes is their near-instantaneous response to changes in the system voltage. For this reason they are often operated at close to their zero-point in order to maximize the reactive power correction they can rapidly provide when required.

Why are VAR compensators used in power transmission system? ›

A static VAR compensator (SVC) is a set of electrical devices for providing fast-acting reactive power on high-voltage electricity transmission networks. It increases the active power transmission capacity of a line. Advantages: It increases the power transmission capability of the transmission lines.

How does a static variable work? ›

Static Variables: When a variable is declared as static, then a single copy of the variable is created and shared among all objects at a class level. Static variables are, essentially, global variables. All instances of the class share the same static variable.

What are the advantages of TCSC? ›

Advantages of the TCSC

lines within the network to enable optimal power-flow conditions and prevent the loop flow of power. ➢ Suppression of sub synchronous oscillations. ➢ Decreasing dc-offset voltages. ➢ Enhanced level of protection for series capacitors.

What are the characteristics of SVC? ›

The SVC regulates voltage at its terminals by controlling the amount of reactive power injected into or absorbed from the power system. When system voltage is low, the SVC generates reactive power (SVC capacitive). When system voltage is high, it absorbs reactive power (SVC inductive).

What are the advantages of SVC over synchronous condenser? ›

However, after the initial delay, the SVC injects more reactive power due to faster voltage control compared to the synchronous condensers that have significantly larger time constants due to their field windings.

What is static variable with example? ›

The static variable can be used to refer to the common property of all objects (which is not unique for each object), for example, the company name of employees, college name of students, etc. The static variable gets memory only once in the class area at the time of class loading.

What is meant by static variable? ›

In computer programming, a static variable is a variable that has been allocated "statically", meaning that its lifetime (or "extent") is the entire run of the program.

Where static variables are stored? ›

The static variables are stored in the data segment of the memory. The data segment is a part of the virtual address space of a program. All the static variables that do not have an explicit initialization or are initialized to zero are stored in the uninitialized data segment( also known as the BSS segment).

What is the basic principle of TCSC? ›

Basic Principle

The principle of variable-series compensation is simply to increase the fundamental-frequency voltage across an fixed capacitor (FC) in a series compensated line through appropriate variation of the firing angle.

Where is TCSC used? ›

The thyristors in TCSC device offers a flexible adjustment with the ability to control the continuous line compensation. TCSC controllers effectively used for solving power system problems of transient stability, dynamic stability, steady state stability and voltage stability in long transmission lines.

What is the operation of TCSC in voltage control mode? ›

TCSC is used to decrease or increase overall effective series transmission impedance from sending end to the receiving end so as to control the transmission of power and the current in the reactor can be controlled from zero to maximum by the method of firing delay angle.

What is static var generator? ›

Static VAR Generators are high performance, compact, flexible, modular and cost-effective Active Power Factor Correction (APFC) systems that provide an instantaneous and effective response to power quality problems in low or high voltage electric power systems.

What is voltage stability? ›

Voltage stability is defined as ability of power system to sustain fixed tolerable voltage at every single bus of the network under standard operating conditions as well as after being subjected to a disruption (Kundur, 1994). From: Smart Power Distribution Systems, 2019.

Which method is used for reactive or voltage compensation? ›

Synchronous condensers—can be used to generate reactive power, when they are operated as a motor. Shunt capacitance —Capacitor banks can be connected in parallel to the transmission lines. Series capacitance —Capacitors connected in series, especially for long lines can be used to raise the voltage.

How power factor is improved? ›

You can improve power factor by adding power factor correction capacitors to your plant distribution system. When apparent power (kVA) is greater than working power (kW), the utility must supply the excess reactive current plus the working current . Power capacitors act as reactive current generators .

How does synchronous condenser improve power factor? ›

Like capacitor bank, we can use an overexcited synchronous motor to improve the poor power factor of a power system. The main advantage of using synchronous motor is that the improvement of power factor is smooth. When a synchronous motor runs with over-excitation, it draws leading current from the source.

How does a synchronous motor improve power factor? ›

A Synchronous Motor can be made to operate at unity and leading power factor by just increasing its excitation voltage i.e. by increasing the field current. This advantage of Synchronous Motor is used to improve the power factor.

Videos

1. Static VAR Compensator (SVC)
(Technogineer)
2. 26 Layout Static Var Compensation SVC
(Open|Source|Solutions)
3. application Example shows the concept of static var compensator (svc) (2)
(Abdallah Reda)
4. External Control Design of Static Var Compensator
(IIT Roorkee July 2018)
5. Modeling and Simulation of Static Var Compensator for Voltage Control Using MATLAB/SIMULINK
(MATLAB ASSIGNMENTS AND PROJECTS)
6. Static VAr Compensators
(Dr Nimal Madhu)

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