# An Introduction to the Bootstrap Method (2022)

## An exploration about bootstrap method, the motivation, and how it works

Bootstrap is a powerful, computer-based method for statistical inference without relying on too many assumption. The first time I applied the bootstrap method was in an A/B test project. At that time I was like using an powerful magic to form a sampling distribution just from only one sample data. No formula needed for my statistical inference. Not only that, in fact, it is widely applied in other statistical inference such as confidence interval, regression model, even the field of machine learning. That’s lead me go through some studies about bootstrap to supplement the statistical inference knowledge with more practical other than my theory mathematical statistics classes.

This article is mainly focus on introducing the core concepts of Bootstrap than its application. But some embed codes will be used as a concept illustrating. We will do a introduction of Bootstrap resampling method, then illustrate the motivation of Bootstrap when it was introduced by Bradley Efron(1979), and illustrate the general idea about bootstrap.

The ideas behind bootstrap, in fact, are containing so many statistic topics that needs to be concerned. However, it is a good chance to recap some statistic inference concepts! The related statistic concept covers:

• Basic Calculus and concept of function
• Mean, Variance, and Standard Deviation
• Distribution Function (CDF) and Probability Density Function (PDF)
• Sampling Distribution
• Central Limit Theory, Law of Large Number and Convergence in Probability
• Statistical Functional, Empirical Distribution Function and Plug-in Principle

Having some basic knowledge above would help for gaining basic ideas behind bootstrap. Some ideas may cover with advance statistic, but I will use a simple way and not very formal mathematics expressions to illustrate basic idea as simple as I can. Links at the end of the article will be provided if you want to learn more about these concepts.

The basic idea of bootstrap is make inference about a estimate(such as sample mean) for a population parameter θ (such as population mean) on sample data. It is a resampling method by independently sampling with replacement from an existing sample data with same sample size n, and performing inference among these resampled data.

Generally, bootstrap involves the following steps:

1. A sample from population with sample size n.
2. Draw a sample from the original sample data with replacement with size n, and replicate B times, each re-sampled sample is called a Bootstrap Sample, and there will totally B Bootstrap Samples.
3. Evaluate the statistic of θ for each Bootstrap Sample, and there will be totally B estimates of θ.
4. Construct a sampling distribution with these B Bootstrap statistics and use it to make further statistical inference, such as:
• Estimating the standard error of statistic for θ.
• Obtaining a Confidence Interval for θ.

We can see we generate new data points by re-sampling from an existing sample, and make inference just based on these new data points.

How and why does bootstrap work?

In this article, I will divide this big question into three parts:

1. What’s the initial motivation that Efron introduced the bootstrap?
2. Why use the simulation technique? In other word, how can I find a estimated variance of statistic by resampling?
3. What’s the main idea that we need to draw a sample from the original sample with replacement ?

The core idea of bootstrap technique is for making certain kinds of statistical inference with the help of modern computer power. When Efron introduced the method, it was particularly motivated by evaluating of the accuracy of an estimator in the field of statistic inference. Usually, estimated standard error are an first step toward thinking critically about the accuracy statistical estimates.

Now, to illustrate how bootstrap works and how an estimator’s standard error plays an important role, let’s start with a simple case.

## Scenario Case

Imagine that you want to summarize how many times a day do students pick up their smartphone in your lab with totally 100 students. It's hard to summarize the number of pickups in whole lab like a census way. Instead, you make a online survey which also provided the pickup-counting APP. In the next few days, you receive 30 students responses with their number of pickups in a given day. You calculated the mean of these 30 pickups and got an estimate for pickups is 228.06 times.

In statistic field, the process above is called a point estimate. What we would like to know is the true number of pickups in whole lab. We don’t have census data, what we can do is just evaluate the population parameter through an estimator based on an observed sample, and then get an estimate as the evaluation of average smartphone usage in the lab.

• Estimator/Statistic: A rule for calculating an estimate. In this case is Sample mean, always denoted as .
• Population Parameter: Numeric summary about a population. In this case is the average time of phone pickups per day in our lab, always denoted as μ.

One key question is — How accurate is this estimate result?

Because of the sampling variability, it is virtually never that X̄ = μ occurs. Hence, besides reporting the value of a point estimate, some indication about the precision should be given. The common measure of accuracy is the standard error of the estimate.

## The Standard Error

The standard error of an estimator is it’s standard deviation. It tells us how far your sample estimate deviates from the actual parameter. If the standard error itself involves unknown parameters, we used the estimated standard error by replacing the unknown parameters with an estimate of the parameters.

Let’s take an example. In our case, our estimator is sample mean, and for sample mean(and nearly only one!), we have an simple formula to easily obtain it’s standard error.

However, the standard deviation of population σ is always unknown in real world, so the most common measurement is the estimated standard error, which use the sample standard deviation S as a estimated standard deviation of the population:

In our case, we have sample with 30, and sample mean is 228.06, and the sample standard deviation is 166.97, so our estimated standard error for our sample mean is 166.97/ √30 = 30.48.

## Standard Error in Statistic Inference

Now we have got our estimated standard error. How can the standard error be used in the statistic inference? Let’s use a simple example to illustrate.

Roughly speaking, if a estimator has a normal distribution or a approximately a normal distributed, then we expect that our estimate to be less than one standard error away from its expectation about 68% of the time, and less than two standard errors away about 95% of the time.

In our case, recall that the sample we collected is 30 response sample, which is sufficiently large in thumb rule, the Central Limit Theorem tells us the sampling distribution of X̄ is closely approximated to a normal distribution. Combining the estimated standard error that, we can get:

We can be reasonably confident that the true of μ, the the average times a day do students pick up their smartphone in our lab, lies within approximately 2 standard error of X̄, which is (228.06 −2×30.48, 228.06+2×30.48) = (167.1, 289.02).

## The Ideal and Reality in Statistic World

We have made our statistic inference. However, how this inference was going well is under some rigorous assumptions.

Let’s recall what assumption or classical theorem we may have used so far:

• An standard error of our sample mean can be easily estimated, which we have used standard deviation of sample as estimator and a simple formula to obtain the estimated standard error.
• We assume we know or can estimate about the estimator’s population. In our case is the approximated normal distribution.

However, in our real world, sometimes it’s hard to meet assumptions or theorem like above:

• It’s hard to know the information about population, or it’s distribution.
• The standard error of a estimate is hard to evaluate in general. Most of time, there is no a precise formula like standard error of sample mean. If now, we want to make a inference for the median of the smart phone pickups, what’s the standard error of sample median?

This is why the bootstrap comes in to address these kind of problems. When these assumptions are violated, or when no formula exists for estimating standard errors , bootstrap is the powerful choice.

To illustrate the main concepts, following explanation will evolve some mathematics definition and denotation, which are kind of informal in order to provide more intuition and understanding.

## 1. Initial Scenario

Assume we want to estimate the standard error of our statistic to make an inference about population parameter, such as for constructing the corresponding confidence interval (just like what we have done before!). And:

• We don’t know anything about population.
• There is no precise formula for estimating the standard error of statistic.

Let X1, X2, … , Xn be a random sample from a population P with distribution function F. And let M= g(X1, X2, …, Xn), be our statistic for parameter of interest, meaning that the statistics a function of sample data X1, X2, …, Xn. What we want to know is the variance of M, denoted as Var(M).

• First, since we don’t know anything about population, we can’t determine the value of Var(M) that requires known parameter of population, so we need to estimate Var(M) with a estimated standard error , denoted as EST_Var(M). (Remember the estimated standard error of sample mean?)
• Second, in real world we always don’t have a simple formula for evaluating the EST_Var(M) other than the sample mean’s.

It leads us need to approximate the EST_Var(M). How? Before answer this , let’s introduce an common practical way is simulation, assume we know P.

## 2. Simulation

Let’s talk about the idea of simulation. It’s useful for obtaining information about a statistic’s sampling distribution with the aid of computers. But it has an important assumption — Assume we know the population P.

Now let X1, X2, … , Xn be a random sample from a population and assume M= g(X1, X2, …, Xn) is the statistic of interest, we could approximate mean and variance of statistic M by simulation as follows:

1. Draw random sample with size n from P.
2. Compute statistic for the sample.
3. Replicate B times for process 1. and 2 and get B statistics.
4. Get the mean and variance for these B statistics.

Why does this simulation works? Since by a classical theorem, the Law of Large Numbers:

• The mean of these B statistic converges to the true mean of statistic M as B → ∞.

And by Law of Large Numbers and several theorem related to Convergence in Probability:

• The sample variance of these B statistic converges to the true variance of statistic M as B → ∞.

With the aid of computer, we can make B as large as we like to approximate to the sampling distribution of statistic M.

Following is the example Python codes for simulation in the previous phone-picks case. I use B=100000, and the simulated mean and standard error for sample mean is very close to the theoretical results in the last two cells. Feel free to check out.

## 3. The Empirical Distribution Function and Plug-in Principle

We have learned the idea of simulation. Now, can we approximate the EST_Var(M) by simulation? Unfortunately, to do the simulation above, we need to know the information about population P. The truth is that we don’t know anything about the P. For addressing this issue, one of most important component in bootstrap Method is adopted:

Using Empirical distribution function to approximate the distribution function of population, and applying Plug-in Principle to get an estimate for Var(M) — the Plug-in estimator.

## (1) Empirical Distribution Function

The idea of Empirical distribution function (EDF) is building an distribution function (CDF) from an existing data set. The EDF usually approximates the CDF quite well, especially for large sample size. In fact, it is a common, useful method for estimating a CDF of a random variable in pratical.

The EDF is a discrete distribution that gives equal weight to each data point (i.e., it assigns probability 1/ n to each of the original n observations), and form a cumulative distribution function that is a step function that jumps up by 1/n at each of the n data points.

## (2) Statistical Functional

Bootstrap use the EDF as an estimator for CDF of population. However, we know the EDF is a type of cumulative distribution function(CDF). To apply the EDF as an estimator for our statistic M, we need to make the form of M as a function of CDF type, even the parameter of interest as well to have the some base line. To do this, a common way is the concept called Statistical Functional. Roughly speaking, a statistical functional is any function of a distribution function. Let’s take an example:

Suppose we are interested in parameters of population. In statistic field , there is always a situation where parameters of interest is a function of the distribution function, these are called statistical functionals. Following list that population mean E(X) is a statistical functional:

From above we can see the mean of population E(X) can also be expressed as a form of CDF of population F — this is a statistical functional. Of course, this expression can be applied to any function other than mean, such as variance.

Statistical functional can be viewed as quantity describing the features of the population. The mean, variance, median, quantiles of F are features of population. Thus, using statistical functional, we have a more rigorous way to define the concepts of population parameters. Therefore, we can say, our statistic M can be : M=g(F), with the population CDF F.

## (3) Plug-in Principle = EDF + Statistical Functional

We have made our statistic is M= g(X1, X2, …, Xn)=g(F) be a statistical functional form. However, we don’t know F. So we have to “plug-in” a estimator for F, “into” our M=g(F), in order to make this M can be evaluate.

It is called plug-in principle. Generally speaking, the plug-in principle is a method of estimation of statistical functionals from a population distribution by evaluating the same functionals, but with the empirical distribution which is based on the sample. This estimation is called a plug-in estimate for the population parameter of interest. For example, a median of a population distribution can be approximated by the median of the empirical distribution of a sample. The empirical distribution here, is form just by the sample because we don’t know population. Put it simply:

• If our parameter of interest , say θ, has the statistical function form θ=g(F), which F is population CDF.
• The plug-in estimator for θ=g(F), is defined to be θ_hat=g(F_hat):
• From above formula we can see we “plug in” the θ_hat and F_hat for the unknown θ and F. F_hat here, is purely estimated by sample data.
• Note that both of the θ and θ_hat are determined by the same function g(.).

Let’s take an mean example as follows, we can see g(.) for mean is — averaging all data points, and it is also applied for sample mean. F_hat here, is form by sample as an estimator of F. We say the sample mean is a plug-in estimator of the population mean.(A more clear result will be provided soon.)

So, what is the F_hat? Remember bootstrap use Empirical distribution function(EDF) as an estimator of CDF of population? In fact, EDF is also a common estimator that be widely used in plug-in principle for F_hat.

Let’s take a look what does our estimator M= g(X1, X2, …, Xn)=g(F) will look like if we plug-in with EDF into it.

• Let Statistic of interest be M=g(X1, X2, …, Xn)= g(F) from a population CDF F.
• We don’t know F, so we build a Plug-in estimator for M, M becomes M_hat= g(F_hat). Let’s rewrite M_hat as follows:

We know EDF is a discrete distribution that with probability mass function PMF assigns probability 1/ n to each of the n observations, so according this, M_hat becomes:

According this, for our mean example, we can find the plug-in estimator for mean μ is just the sample mean:

Hence, we through Plug-in Principle, to make an estimate for M=g(F), say M_hat=g(F_hat). And remember that, what we want to find out is Var(M), and we approximate Var(M) by Var(M_hat). But in general case, there is no precise formula for Var(M_hat) other than sample mean! It leads us to apply a simulation.

## (4) Bootstrap Variance Estimation

It’s nearly the last step! Let’s refresh the whole process with the Plug-in Principle concept.

Our goal is to estimate the variance of our estimator M, which is Var(M). The Bootstrap principle is as follows:

1. We don’t know the population P with CDF denoted as F, so bootstrap use Empirical distribution function(EDF) as estimate of F.
2. Using our existing sample data to form a EDF as a estimated population.
3. Applied the Plug-in Principle to make M=g(F) can be evaluate with EDF. Hence, M=g(F) becomes M_hat= g(F_hat), it’s the plugged-in estimator with EDF — F_hat.
4. Take simulation to approximate to the Var(M_hat).

Recall that to do the original version of simulation, we need to draw a sample data from population, obtain a statistic M=g(F) from it, and replicate the procedure B times, then get variance of these B statistic to approximate the true variance of statistic.

Therefore, to do simulation in step 4, we need to:

1. Draw a sample data from EDF.
2. Obtain a plug-in statistic M_hat= g(F_hat).
3. Replicate the two procedure B times.
4. Get the variance of these B statistic, to approximate the true variance of plug-in statistic.(It’s an easily confused part.)

What’s the simulation? In fact, it is the bootstrap sampling process that we mentioned in the beginning of this article!

Two questions here(I promise these are last two!):

1. How does draw from EDF look like in step 1?
2. How does this simulation work?

## How does draw from EDF look like?

We know EDF builds an CDF from existing sample data X1, …, Xn, and by definition it puts mass 1/n at each sample data point. Therefore, drawing an random sample from an EDF, can be seen as drawing n observations, with replacement, from our existing sample data X1, …, Xn. So that’s why the bootstrap sample is sampled with replacement as shown before.

## How does simulation work?

The variance of plug-in estimator M_hat=g(F_hat) is what the bootstrap simulation want to simulate. At the beginning of simulation, we draw observations with replacement from our existing sample data X1, …, Xn. Let’s denote these re-sampled data X1* , …, Xn*. Now, let’s compare bootstrap simulation with our original simulation version again .

Original simulation process for Var(M=g(F)):

(Video) Learn Bootstrap in less than 20 minutes - Responsive Website Tutorial

`Original Simulation Version- Approximate EST_Var(M|F) with known FLet X1, X2, … , Xn be a random sample from a population P and assume M= g(X1, X2, …, Xn) is the statistic of interest, we could approximate variance of statistic M by simulation as follows:1. Draw random sample with size n from P.2. Compute statistic for the sample.3. Replicate B times for process 1. and 2 and get B statistics.4. Get the variance for these B statistics.`

Bootstrap Simulation for Var(M_hat=g(F_hat))

`Bootstrap Simulation Version- Approximate Var(M_hat|F_hat) with EDFNow let X1, X2, … , Xn be a random sample from a population P with CDF F, and assume M= g(X1, X2, …, Xn ;F) is the statistic of interest. But we don't know F, so we:1.Form a EDF from the existing sample data by draw observations with replacement from our existing sample data X1, …, Xn. These are denote as X1*, X2*, …, Xn*. We call this is a bootstrap sample.2.Compute statistic M_hat= g(X1*, X2*, …, Xn* ;F_hat) for the bootstrap sample.3. Replicate B times for steps 2 and 3, and get B statistics M_hat.4. Get the variance for these B statistics to approximate the Var(M_hat).`

Would you feel familiar with processes above? In fact, it’s the same process with bootstrap sampling method we have mentioned before!

Finally, let’s check out how does our simulation will work. What we will get the approximation from this bootstrap simulation is for Var(M_hat), but what we really concern is whether Var(M_hat) can approximate to Var(M). So two question here:

1. Will bootstrap variance simulation result, which is S², can approximate well for Var(M_hat)?
2. Can Var(M_hat) can approximate to Var(M)?

To answer this ,let’s use a diagram to illustrate the both types simulation error:

1. From bootstrap variance estimation, we will get an estimate for Var(M_hat) — the plug-in estimate for Var(M). And the Law of Large Number tell us, if our simulation times B is large enough, the bootstrap variance estimation S², is a good approximate for Var(M_hat). Fortunately, we can get a larger B as we like with aid of a computer. So this simulation error can be small.
2. The Variance of M_hat, is the plug-in estimate for variance of M from true F. Is the Var(M_hat; F_hat) a good estimator for Var(M; F)? In other words, does a plug-in estimator approximate well to the estimator of interest ? That’s the key point what we really concern. In fact, the topic of asymptotic properties for plug-in estimators is classified in high level mathematical statistic. But let’s explain the main issues and ideas.
• First, We know the empirical distribution will converges to true distribution function well if sample size is large, say F_hat → F.
• Second, if F_hat → F, and if it’s corresponding statistical function g(.) is a smoothness conditions, then g(F_hat) → g(F). In our case, the statistical function g(.) is Variance, which satisfy the required continuity conditions. Therefore, that explains why the bootstrap variance is a good estimate of the true variance of the estimator M.

Generally, the smoothness conditions on some functionals is difficult to verify. Fortunately, most common statistical functions like mean, variance or moments satisfy the required continuity conditions. It provides that bootstrapping works. And of course, make the original sample size not too small as we can.

Below is my Bootstrap sample code for pickup case, fell free to check out.

Let’s recap the main ideas of bootstrap with following diagram!

So far I know it’s not easy with tons of statistical concepts. But understanding basic concepts behind a method can make us in a right direction when apply it. After all, Bootstrap has been applied to a much wider level of practical cases, it is more constructive to learn start from the basic part. Thanks for reading so far and hope this article helps! Leave your comments if I’ve made any mistakes :) !

Most helpful book by Efron, with more general concept of Bootstrap and how it connects to statistical inference.

Also a helpful book, form EDF to Bootstrap method

Other book:

Empirical Distribution Function and Plug-in Principle

Other Materials

## FAQs

### How would you describe bootstrap method? ›

The bootstrap method is a statistical technique for estimating quantities about a population by averaging estimates from multiple small data samples. Importantly, samples are constructed by drawing observations from a large data sample one at a time and returning them to the data sample after they have been chosen.

### How many bootstrap samples are possible? ›

TLDR. 10,000 seems to be a good rule of thumb, e.g. p-values from this large or larger of bootstrap samples will be within 0.01 of the "true p-value" for the method about 95% of the time.

### What is meant by data bootstrapping sampling n examples? ›

Bootstrapping is a type of resampling where large numbers of smaller samples of the same size are repeatedly drawn, with replacement, from a single original sample. For example, let's say your sample was made up of ten numbers: 49, 34, 21, 18, 10, 8, 6, 5, 2, 1. You randomly draw three numbers 5, 1, and 49.

### How big should bootstrap sample be? ›

The purpose of the bootstrap sample is merely to obtain a large enough bootstrap sample size, usually at least 1000 in order to obtain with low MC errors such that one can obtain distribution statistics on the original sample e.g. 95% CI.

### Why is bootstrap method important? ›

The bootstrap method has been shown to be an effective technique in situations where it is necessary to determine the sampling distribution of (usually) a complex statistic with an unknown probability distribution using these data in a single sample.

### What is the purpose of bootstrapping? ›

Bootstrapping is a statistical procedure that resamples a single dataset to create many simulated samples. This process allows you to calculate standard errors, construct confidence intervals, and perform hypothesis testing for numerous types of sample statistics.

### What is an example of bootstrapping? ›

An entrepreneur who risks their own money as an initial source of venture capital is bootstrapping. For example, someone who starts a business using \$100,000 of their own money is bootstrapping.

### What is one main limitation of the bootstrap? ›

It does not perform bias corrections, etc. There is no cure for small sample sizes. Bootstrap is powerful, but it's not magic — it can only work with the information available in the original sample. If the samples are not representative of the whole population, then bootstrap will not be very accurate.

### What is another word for bootstrapping? ›

What is another word for bootstrapping?
bootingstarting
starting computerwarming boot
kick-startingsetting in motion
setting offstarting off
actuatingigniting
16 more rows

### What are the advantages of bootstrapping? ›

Bootstrapping is an excellent funding approach that keeps ownership in-house and limits the debt you accrue. While it comes with financial risk since you're using your own funds, you can take smart steps to alleviate the drawbacks of self-financing, and solely reap the benefits instead.

### What is a bootstrap distribution of the sample mean? ›

Bootstrapping is a resampling procedure that uses data from one sample to generate a sampling distribution by repeatedly taking random samples from the known sample.

### Is bootstrapping good for small samples? ›

"The theory of the bootstrap involves showing consistency of the estimate. So it can be shown in theory that it works in large samples. But it can also work in small samples. I have seen it work for classification error rate estimation particularly well in small sample sizes such as 20 for bivariate data.

### How many replications are needed in bootstrap? ›

In terms of the number of replications, there is no fixed answer such as “250” or “1,000” to the question. The right answer is that you should choose an infinite number of replications because, at a formal level, that is what the bootstrap requires.

### What is the purpose of bootstrap confidence interval? ›

'Bootstrapping' describes a process which aims to estimate how a statistic's value will vary when it is calculated from random samples of an infinite population. To achieve this a model population is constructed from your sample of observations, and resampled so as to mimic how those observations were obtained.

### What is the advantage of bootstrap sampling without replacement? ›

1) You don't need to worry about the finite population correction. 2) There is a chance that elements from the population are drawn multiple times - then you can recycle the measurements and save time.

### What is bootstrapping coding? ›

Bootstrap programming, also referred to as “bootstrapping”, refers to the initial piece of code that is executed upon startup. The very first bit of code to run after startup is what the entire operating system depends on in order to work properly.

### Are bootstrap samples normally distributed? ›

Bootstrap estimated distributions of test statistics are most certainly not always Gaussian. The beauty of the bootstrap is that you need not make any assumptions about that distribution, as it can often be wrong.

### What are 2 strategies for bootstrapping? ›

14 Bootstrapping Tips
• Try swapping equity for expertise. ...
• Test the market in small ways. ...
• Employ creative bartering. ...
• Encourage developers to jump in - for free. ...
• Manage your own public relations like a pro. ...
• Do your own market research. ...
• Get creative with new investment styles.
8 Jun 2010

### What is a bootstrap problem? ›

Bootstrapping is a suspicious form of reasoning that verifies a source's reliability by checking the source against itself. Theories that endorse such reasoning face the bootstrapping problem. This article considers which theories face the problem and surveys potential solutions.

### Is bootstrap easy to use? ›

Web designers and web developers like Bootstrap because it is flexible and easy to work with. Its main advantages are that it is responsive by design, it maintains wide browser compatibility, it offers consistent design by using re-usable components, and it is very easy to use and quick to learn.

### What are the pros and cons of using bootstrap? ›

The Pros and Cons of Bootstrapping
• PRO: Greater Focus. Bootstrapping can also take out another pressure point of many startups which is having to impress investors to raise funding. ...
• CON: Time. ...
• PRO: Easier Pivoting. ...
• CON: Lack of Investor support. ...
• PRO: You don't dilute your ownership. ...
• CON: Personal risk.
2 Sept 2014

### Does bootstrapping reduce bias? ›

There is systematic shift between average sample estimates and the population value: thus the sample median is a biased estimate of the population median. Fortunately, this bias can be corrected using the bootstrap.

### Can you use bootstrapping for a median? ›

Bootstrapping is a resampling procedure that uses data from one sample to generate a sampling distribution by repeatedly taking random samples from the known sample, with replacement. Let's show how to create a bootstrap sample for the median.

### What does bootstrap standard deviation mean? ›

The standard deviation of the bootstrap samples (also known as the bootstrap standard error) is an estimate of the standard deviation of the sampling distribution of the chosen statistic.

### What is the standard error of the sample median value? ›

The standard error of the median for large samples and normal distributions is: Thus, the standard error of the median is about 25% larger than that for the mean. It is thus less efficient and more subject to sampling fluctuations.

### How do you use bootstrap in a sentence? ›

The community is pulling itself up by its bootstraps. Third world agriculture can easily pull itself up by its bootstraps. The corporation has pulled itself up by its bootstraps. If we receive that co-operation and some money, the area will lift itself up by the bootstraps.

### Who coined the term bootstrap? ›

The expression "pull yourself up by your bootstraps" was originally used to refer to a task that's impossible. It's believed to come from the German author Rudolf Erich Raspe, who wrote about a character who pulled himself out of a swamp by pulling his own hair.

### What is the meaning of bootstrapping in business? ›

Bootstrapping refers to the process of starting a company with only personal savings, including borrowed or invested funds from family or friends, as well as income from initial sales. Self-funded businesses do not rely on traditional financing methods, such as the support of investors, crowdfunding or bank loans.

### What are the shape and center of a bootstrap distribution? ›

A bootstrap distribution usually has approximately the same shape and spread as the sampling distribution. It is centered at the statistic (from the original sample) while the sampling distribution is centered at the parameter (of the population).

### What is the formula of sample mean? ›

Calculating sample mean is as simple as adding up the number of items in a sample set and then dividing that sum by the number of items in the sample set. To calculate the sample mean through spreadsheet software and calculators, you can use the formula: x̄ = ( Σ xi ) / n.

### What is the difference between a sampling distribution and a bootstrap distribution? ›

Bootstrapping is a method that estimates the sampling distribution by taking multiple samples with replacement from a single random sample. These repeated samples are called resamples. Each resample is the same size as the original sample.

### Does bootstrapping increase power? ›

It's true that bootstrapping generates data, but this data is used to get a better idea of the sampling distribution of some statistic, not to increase power Christoph points out a way that this may increase power anyway, but it's not by increasing the sample size.

### Which steps should be followed to obtain a bootstrap confidence interval using the percentile method? ›

To construct a 95% bootstrap confidence interval using the percentile method follow these steps:
1. Determine what type(s) of variable(s) you have and what parameters you want to estimate. ...
2. Get your sample data into StatKey. ...
3. Generate at least 5,000 bootstrap samples.

### What is diff between cross validation and bootstrapping? ›

In summary, Cross validation splits the available dataset to create multiple datasets, and Bootstrapping method uses the original dataset to create multiple datasets after resampling with replacement. Bootstrapping it is not as strong as Cross validation when it is used for model validation.

### What is bootstrap value? ›

The bootstrap value is the proportion of replicate phylogenies that recovered a particular clade from the original phylogeny that was built using the original alignment. The bootstrap value for a clade is the proportion of the replicate trees that recovered that particular clade (fig. 1).

### How many bootstraps are needed for a confidence interval? ›

Another important question: how many bootstrap samplings to do. It depends on data size. If there are less than 1000 data points, it is reasonable to take bootstrap number no more than twice less data size (if there are 400 samples, use no more than 200 bootstraps – further increase doesn't provide any improvements).

### How are bootstrap replicates generated? ›

A bootstrap replicate is a shuffled representation of the DNA sequence data. To make a bootstrap replicate of the primates data, bases are sampled randomly from the sequences with replacement and concatenated to make new sequences.

### What is bootstrap analysis? ›

The bootstrap method is a statistical technique for estimating quantities about a population by averaging estimates from multiple small data samples. Importantly, samples are constructed by drawing observations from a large data sample one at a time and returning them to the data sample after they have been chosen.

### How many bootstrap samples are possible? ›

TLDR. 10,000 seems to be a good rule of thumb, e.g. p-values from this large or larger of bootstrap samples will be within 0.01 of the "true p-value" for the method about 95% of the time.

### How do you resample data in Excel? ›

The basic procedure is simple: Select the data you want to resample, select “resample” or “shuffle” from the Resampling Stats menu, then specify an output range for the resampled data. Calculate a statistic of interest, then select “Repeat & Score” from the Resampling Stats menu.

### What is bootstrap in phylogenetic tree? ›

The bootstrap value is the proportion of replicate phylogenies that recovered a particular clade from the original phylogeny that was built using the original alignment. The bootstrap value for a clade is the proportion of the replicate trees that recovered that particular clade (fig. 1).

### What is another word for bootstrapping? ›

What is another word for bootstrapping?
bootingstarting
starting computerwarming boot
kick-startingsetting in motion
setting offstarting off
actuatingigniting
16 more rows

### What does a bootstrap confidence interval mean? ›

'Bootstrapping' describes a process which aims to estimate how a statistic's value will vary when it is calculated from random samples of an infinite population. To achieve this a model population is constructed from your sample of observations, and resampled so as to mimic how those observations were obtained.

### What is bootstrapping in reinforcement learning? ›

Bootstrapping: When you estimate something based on another estimation. In the case of Q-learning for example this is what is happening when you modify your current reward estimation rt by adding the correction term maxa′Q(s′,a′) which is the maximum of the action value over all actions of the next state.

### How do you interpret bootstrap values in a phylogenetic tree? ›

A bootstrap support above 95% is very good and very well accepted and a bootstrap support between 75% and 95% is reasonably good, anything below 75% is a very poor support and anything below 50% is of no use, it is rejected and such values are not even displayed on the phylogenetic tree.

### What do low bootstrap values mean? ›

Low bootstrap values indicate that there is conflicting signal or little signal in the data set. This may be a problem in the alignment, as Chris suggested. In this case it could be due to an erroneous alignment, which often occurs when the sequences aligned are ambiguous or too diverse.

### How do bootstrap values increase in phylogenetic tree? ›

In my own experience, rethinking your out-group species, improved alignment (including coding indels) and of course making sure the uninformative and low quality sites are removed from the alignment will definitely help increase the bootstrap support in your tree.

### How do you use bootstrap in a sentence? ›

The community is pulling itself up by its bootstraps. Third world agriculture can easily pull itself up by its bootstraps. The corporation has pulled itself up by its bootstraps. If we receive that co-operation and some money, the area will lift itself up by the bootstraps.

### Who coined the term bootstrap? ›

The expression "pull yourself up by your bootstraps" was originally used to refer to a task that's impossible. It's believed to come from the German author Rudolf Erich Raspe, who wrote about a character who pulled himself out of a swamp by pulling his own hair.

### How do you find the 95 confidence interval in bootstrap? ›

For 1000 bootstrap resamples of the mean difference, one can use the 25th value and the 975th value of the ranked differences as boundaries of the 95% confidence interval. (This captures the central 95% of the distribution.)

### How do you calculate bootstrapped confidence interval? ›

Compute δ* = x* − x for each bootstrap sample (x is mean of original data), sort them from smallest to biggest. Choose δ. 1 as the 90th percentile, δ. 9 as the 10th percentile of sorted list of δ*, which gives an 80% confidence interval of [x−δ.

### Which of the following reinforcement learning methods use bootstrapping? ›

Temporal difference (TD) learning refers to a class of model-free reinforcement learning methods which learn by bootstrapping from the current estimate of the value function.

### Does bootstrapping prevent Overfitting? ›

Bootstrap sampling is used in a machine learning ensemble algorithm called bootstrap aggregating (also called bagging). It helps in avoiding overfitting and improves the stability of machine learning algorithms.

### What is bootstrap sampling in machine learning? ›

In statistics and machine learning, bootstrapping is a resampling technique that involves repeatedly drawing samples from our source data with replacement, often to estimate a population parameter. By “with replacement”, we mean that the same data point may be included in our resampled dataset multiple times.

## Videos

1. The Bootstrap Method
(IQmates)
2. Bootstrap Introduction and Example - Statistical Inference
(Data Talks)
3. Introduction to Bootstrap Resampling
(BIOS 6611)
4. Bootstrap - Introduction
(Tutorials Point (India) Ltd.)
5. Intro to Bootstrapping in R
(CalebLikesR)
6. Bootstrapping and Resampling in Statistics with Example| Statistics Tutorial #12 |MarinStatsLectures
(MarinStatsLectures-R Programming & Statistics)

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